Pivotal Response Training (PRT)
PIVOTAL RESPONSE TRAINING THEORY:
Pivotal Response Training (PRT) is a naturalistic intervention based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. PRT targets certain pivotal areas for treatment that are believed to be central to wide areas of functioning, so positive changes in pivotal behaviors should have widespread effects on many other behaviors. Important pivotal areas addressed using PRT are motivation and responsivity to multiple cues. This intervention is flexible and designed to be used in structured one-on-one teaching or a natural setting. This technique provides therapists, parents, teachers, and caregivers with a method of responding to the child with ASD, which provides teaching opportunities throughout the day. Integrating PRT into everyday living can facilitate generalization and maintenance of the desired behavior change.
PRT works to increase motivation in developing new skills such as language, social interaction, and play.
PRT Techniques and Components:
The question/instruction/opportunity to respond should:
– Be clear, uninterrupted and appropriate to the task
– Be interspersed with maintenance tasks
– Be chosen by the child
– Include multiple components when appropriate Other important aspects of PRT include turn taking, frequent task variation, allowing child choice, and natural consequences.
The Reinforcers should be:
– Contingent upon behavior
– Administered following any reasonable attempt to respond
– Related to the desired behavior in a direct way